It is a way of changing a non-forest area or land into a forest. Afforestation is not only a part of sustainable development but also cause ecological balances. Due to increase in infrastructure, industries, development of technology, large forest area has been cut off which reduces the carbon sinks and cause global warming. Hence in order to fight the issue of global warming, soil erosion, pollution and creating ecological balance and maintenance of bio-diversity, afforestation is required.Read more
India ranks 10th in the list of most forested nations in the world with 76.87 million ha of forest and tree cover & India’s forest and tree cover accounts for about 24% of the total geographical area of the country by 2013. India has been successful in improving carbon stock in its forest by about 5% from 6,621.5 million tons in 2005 to 6,941 million tonnes in 2013. The forests are playing a significant role in carbon storage and sequestration has increased their importance manifold and brought them to the centre-stage of climate change mitigation strategies. Forests, like other ecosystems, are affected by climate change. The impacts due to climate change may be negative in some areas, and positive in others. However, forests also influence climate and the climate change process mainly by effecting the changes in the quantum of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. They absorb CO2 from atmosphere, and store carbon in wood, leaves, litter, roots and soil by acting as “carbon sinks”. Carbon is released back into the atmosphere when forests are cleared or burned. Forests by acting as sinks are considered to moderate the global climate.
Sustainable Forestry Management (SFM)
It expatiate the deforestation and forest degradation while increasing the direct benefits from it to population and environment by conserving and maintaining the forest ecosystem. SFM is a management regime that integrates and balances social, economic, ecological, cultural and spiritual need needs of present and future generation (United Nation, 1992). For managing forest sustainably proper forest policies, legislation, institutional framework, incentives and technical as well as huge skilled manpower is required. SFM not only ensure the increase in forest products like wood, fire-wood, fruits etc. but also reduces the threat from fires, pests and natural disaster. It also included agroforestry as well as tree based oil and subsequently increase the natural carbon capture and storage system. SFM also contributed the multiple water ecosystem services. It has been estimated forested catchment supply around 75% of fresh water. In India 701.673 Sq. Km is under forest which include 85,904 Sq. Km Very Dense Forest, 315,374 Sq. Km Moderate Dense Forest and 300,395 Sq. Km Open Forest with total carbon stock of 6,941 million tonnes (2013). The National Afforestation and Eco-Development Board (NAEB), set up by MoEFCC in August 1992, which is responsible for promoting afforestation,tree planting, ecological restoration and eco-development activities in the country, with special attention to the degraded forest areas and lands adjoining the forest areas, national parks, sanctuaries and other protected areas as well as the ecologically fragile areas like the Western Himalayas, Aravallis, Western Ghats, etc. Other initiatives of Government of India are (i) The Forest (Conversation) Act, 1980, (ii) National Forest Policy, 1988, (iii) JFM, NFC, CAMPA